Senior hydrogeologist nrog Minnesota Pollution Control Agency Rebecca Higgins taw qhia cov khoom siv hauv PFAS trailer nres hauv Lake Elmo, Minn., thaum Lub Kaum Ob Hlis 7, 2022. Lub koom haum tab tom sim tawm cov thev naus laus zis tshiab uas tuaj yeem tshem PFAS cov tshuaj los ntawm dej. Cov no yog cov tshuaj uas txuas ntxiv ua paug rau hauv av nyob rau sab hnub tuaj Twin Cities cheeb tsam tom qab leaching tawm ntawm legacy 3M industrial pov tseg qhov chaw. (Shari L. Gross / Minneapolis Lub Hnub Qub Tribune)
Sijhawm Nyeem Ntawv: 4 feeb

Zaj dab neeg no yog ib yam khoom ntawm tus Mississippi River Basin Ag & Lub Rooj Dej, ib qho kev tshaj tawm xov xwm ywj pheej raws li hauv University of Missouri Lub Tsev Kawm Ntawv ntawm Kev Sau Xov Xwm hauv kev koom tes nrog Kev Qhia Txog Asmeskas thiab tau txais nyiaj los ntawm Walton Family Foundation. Wisconsin Saib yog ib tug tswv cuab ntawm lub network. Sau npe rau peb tsab ntawv xov xwm kom tau txais peb cov xov xwm ncaj qha rau koj lub inbox.

3M tshaj tawm rau lub Kaum Ob Hlis tias nws phasing tawm ib tsev neeg ntawm cov tshuaj phem, tab sis lawv tsis mus lawm.

Cov "cov tshuaj nyob mus ib txhis," paub ua ke raws li per- thiab polyfluorinated tshuaj los yog PFAS, yog siv nyob rau hauv txhua yam los ntawm ntaub pua plag mus rau nonstick lauj kaub rau cov hniav ntxuav hniav dawb. Cov chains ntawm carbon-fluorine bonds yog qhov zoo tshaj plaws ntawm kev tshem tawm cov stains, roj thiab dej, thiab txawm tias tua hluav taws txaus ntshai. Tab sis lawv kuj tsis tawg hauv ib puag ncig, thiab lawv nyob hauv tib neeg lub cev rau xyoo. 

Kev tshawb fawb tau txuas cov tshuaj rau kev loj hlob thiab kev tiv thaiv kab mob, teeb meem fertility thiab qee cov qog nqaij hlav.

Maplewood, Minnesota-raws li 3M, uas tab tom ntsib kev sib foob ntawm PFAS nws tau pab pioneer nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua xeem, hais tias nws yuav tsum tsis txhob ua thiab siv los ntawm 2025, suav nrog ntawm nws cov nroj tsuag hauv Cottage Grove, Minnesota. 

Hauv kev pom ntawm Rainer Lohmann, tus thawj coj ntawm lub University of Rhode Island's STEEP lab thiab ib txoj cai ntawm PFAS kev kis kab mob: "Kev npau suav phem tseem tsis tau nres."

Cov kws tshawb fawb thiab cov neeg tawm tswv yim ib puag ncig tau hais tias qhov kev pheej hmoo thiab thoob ntiaj teb ntawm cov pa phem los ntawm cov tshuaj yuav ua rau muaj kev nyuaj rau kev ntxuav tu rau xyoo tom ntej. Lawv kuj txhawj xeeb cov tuam txhab lag luam tshiab tuaj yeem nkag mus ua qhov sib txawv ntawm 3M, thiab lawv tau hais tias lub tuam txhab yuav tsum pab txhawb rau kev tu ib puag ncig. 

"Txawm hais tias nws yog qhov zoo uas lawv tau txav deb ntawm cov tshuaj no thaum kawg, tom qab kev ntxhov siab, tom qab kev lav phib xaub, tom qab kev ntxhov siab los ntawm tsoomfwv cov tswj hwm ... lawv yeej yuav tsum tsis txhob tso tseg txoj kev lav phib xaub rau kev lav phib xaub," Melanie Benesh, tus lwm thawj coj ntawm tsoomfwv txoj haujlwm nrog. Environmental Working Group, ib lub koom haum tawm tswv yim.

3M twb tau koom nrog kev tu vaj tse nyob rau hauv kev sib txuas nrog kev cai lij choj thiab kev tswj hwm ib puag ncig. Nws tau them nyiaj rau lub xeev Minnesota $850 lab los daws qhov kev foob txog kev puas tsuaj ntuj tsim nyob rau xyoo 2018, thiab ua ntej nws yuav tsum tau khawb cov khoom tsis huv los ntawm ntau qhov pov tseg uas siv los ntawm nws cov nroj tsuag tshuaj nyob rau sab hnub tuaj Twin Cities cheeb tsam. Lub tuam txhab kuj nkag mus rau hauv daim ntawv cog lus pom zoo nrog lub Environmental Protection Agency lub Kaum Ib Hlis no los sim thiab kho cov dej haus hauv thaj tsam 10-mais nyob ib ncig ntawm nws cov tshuaj cog hauv Cordova, Ill.

Nws tseem tab tom ntsib kev tshuaj xyuas txuas ntxiv nyob ib puag ncig nws cov Cottage Grove cog, qhov uas muaj kev tshawb nrhiav qhib rau nws cov dej tawm los ntawm EPA thiab Minnesota Lub Chaw Tswj Xyuas Kev Ua qias tuaj. 3M ua prv qhia qhov kev tshawb nrhiav rau cov tub ua lag luam hauv 2020.

MPCA tus kws tshaj lij Andrea Cournoyer tsis kam tawm tswv yim txog qhov kev nug.

Hauv email, nws tau sau tias lub chaw haujlwm "zoo siab txais tos" 3M txoj kev npaj yuav tsum tsis txhob tsim khoom thiab nws "yuav tuav 3M thiab lwm lub koom haum lav ris rau lawv cov pa phem PFAS, raws li qhov tsim nyog."

Sean Lynch, tus cev lus rau 3M, kuj tsis kam tawm tswv yim txog qhov kev tshawb nrhiav.

Nws tau sau ntawv hauv email tias lub tuam txhab "yuav ua tiav nws cov lus cog tseg rau kev tswj hwm dej, nrog rau kev kho PFOA thiab PFOS ntawm qee qhov chaw uas peb tsim lossis pov tseg cov ntaub ntawv no."

Cov thev naus laus zis tshiab tau raug sim los ntxuav PFAS - suav nrog ib lub tshuab tsim los mloog cov tshuaj ua npuas ncauj rau saum dej, uas MPCA siv nyob rau sab hnub tuaj metro. 

Tab sis tseem muaj ob peb txoj hauv kev los rhuav tshem cov tshuaj, thiab lawv niaj hnub pom tias cov kws tshawb fawb feem ntau xa mus rau " theem tom ntej" uas muaj nyob hauv cov ntshav ntawm cov neeg feem coob.

Matt Simcik, tus xibfwb ntawm ib puag ncig chemistry ntawm University of Minnesota uas tau kawm txog PFAS kev sib kis tau ntau xyoo tau hais tias "Txhua qhov chaw peb pom nws, peb paub tias nws tau muab tso rau ntawd los ntawm ib tus neeg lossis qee qhov txheej txheem uas peb tsim.

3M tseem tab tom tiv nrog cov cuab yeej cuab tam ntawm ob qhov qub tshaj plaws thiab zoo tshaj plaws-kev kawm formulations ntawm cov tshuaj, PFOS thiab PFOA. Lub tuam txhab tshaj tawm hauv 2000 tias nws yuav ua rau lawv tawm mus. Tab sis lwm lub tuam txhab, xws li DuPont, tsis tau txog ntau tom qab. Cov tshuaj muaj niaj hnub pom nyob ib ncig ntawm lub ntiaj teb niaj hnub no. Ib txoj kev tshawb no tsis ntev los no tau qhia txog cov dej nag uas muaj ntau tshaj li qhov txwv tau teev tseg rau cov dej haus los ntawm EPA.

Lohmann tau hais tias "PFOS yog cov khoom lag luam 3M ntau heev, thiab peb tseem txhawj xeeb txog nws 20 xyoo tom qab lawv tau txiav nws tawm," Lohmann tau hais.

Qhov teeb meem kev kis kab mob yog ib qho nyuaj dua li lwm cov kab mob tseem ceeb, xws li PCBs, Simcik tau hais. Cov tshuaj lom neeg muaj kev phom sij tau siv dav hauv cov khoom siv hluav taws xob, kev ua tiav thiab cov yas kom txog thaum lawv tsim khoom raug txwv hauv Tebchaws Meskas hauv xyoo 1979. Lawv nyiam lo rau cov khoom, yog li dhau sijhawm qee cov PCBs tau tso rau hauv ib puag ncig hauv cov chaw xws li Great Lakes muaj. nyob rau hauv cov av thiab tau npog, Simcik hais.

Nws tau hais tias "Lub pob loj ntawd tseem nyob rau ntawd thiab faus, yog li nws tsis muaj teeb meem," nws hais.

Qhov ntawd tsis yog qhov teeb meem nrog PFAS, uas txav tau yooj yim los ntawm dej thiab txuas mus rau tib neeg thiab tsiaj txhu.

Tom qab ntawd muaj cov lus nug txog dab tsi tuaj yeem hloov cov tshuaj. Simcik thiab Lohmann ob leeg txhawj xeeb txog dab tsi cov khoom ntawm cov tshuaj tshiab tuaj yeem yog. 

3M tsis tau tshaj tawm tias nws yuav hloov cov tshuaj li cas uas muab $ 1.3 nphom hauv kev muag khoom txhua xyoo. 

Nug seb lub tuam txhab puas yuav kuaj xyuas kev noj qab haus huv lossis kev nyab xeeb ntawm PFAS hloov pauv, Lynch tau sau tias "3M tau cog lus los tsim kho tshiab rau lub ntiaj teb tsis tshua muaj kev vam khom rau PFAS. 3M cov khoom muaj kev nyab xeeb rau lawv txoj kev siv. "

Lwm qhov chaw tsim khoom tseem ceeb hauv Tebchaws Meskas yog Chemours, kev sib tw ntawm DuPont, uas tau siv ntau cov qauv ntawm PFAS hauv nws cov khoom siv Teflon. 

Nug seb lub tuam txhab puas tau txiav txim siab tawm ntawm PFAS, tus kws tshaj lij Cassie Olszewski tau sau rau hauv email, "Chemours tau cog lus rau fluorine chemistry thiab nws lub zog los pab txhawb lub ntiaj teb-hloov thev naus laus zis uas pab daws qee qhov teeb meem nyuaj tshaj plaws hauv ntiaj teb."

Rov luam tawm peb cov ntawv dawb, hauv online lossis luam tawm, raws li daim ntawv tso cai Creative Commons.

Nrov dab neeg los ntawm Wisconsin Watch

Chloe Johnson / Minneapolis Lub Hnub Qub Tribune

Chloe Johnson npog ib puag ncig rau Star Tribune hauv Minneapolis, thiab yog ib feem ntawm Mississippi River Basin Ag & Water Desk, kev sib koom tes tshaj tawm thoob plaws hauv Pas Dej. Yav dhau los, Johnson tau tshaj tawm txog ib puag ncig, kev hloov pauv huab cua thiab cov neeg hloov pauv mus rau lub ntiaj teb sov dua rau The Post thiab Courier hauv Charleston, South Carolina. Nws pib nws txoj haujlwm ntawm Lub Hnub Xov Xwm hauv Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, thiab tau txais kev sau xov xwm los ntawm American University. Nws txoj haujlwm tau lees paub los ntawm Scripps Howard Foundation thiab Society for Features Journalism, thiab nws yog tus kawg rau Pulitzer nqi zog. Johnson yeej ib txwm nrhiav kev zam txim zoo los dhia hauv nkoj.