Lub cev rov qab osmosis pom pom nyob hauv qab chav ua noj dab dej ntawm lub nroog Campbell, Wis., tus thawj saib xyuas Lee Donahue thaum Lub Xya Hli 20, 2022. Donahue tsev neeg yog nyob ntawm ntau dua 1,350 ntawm Fabkis Island uas tau txais cov dej fwj dawb los ntawm lub nroog La Crosse. thiab lub xeev. Donahue pib teeb tsa lub kaw lus tab sis txhawj xeeb tias nws tsis ua haujlwm txaus ntawm kev tshem PFAS, yog li nws tsis siv nws lawm. (Coburn Dukehart / Wisconsin Saib)
Sijhawm Nyeem Ntawv: 6 feeb

Zaj dab neeg no yog ib yam khoom ntawm tus Mississippi River Basin Ag & Lub Rooj Dej, ib qho kev tshaj tawm xov xwm ywj pheej raws li hauv University of Missouri Lub Tsev Kawm Ntawv ntawm Kev Sau Xov Xwm hauv kev koom tes nrog Kev Qhia Txog Asmeskas thiab tau txais nyiaj los ntawm Walton Family Foundation. Wisconsin Saib yog ib tug tswv cuab ntawm lub network. Sau npe rau peb tsab ntawv xov xwm thiab pub los txhawb peb qhov tseeb-kuaj sau xov xwm.

Yog tias koj tau hnov ​​​​ntau ntxiv txog PFAS hauv Wisconsin cov dej, nws yog vim qhov kev sim tau nce ntxiv cov tshuaj phem no. Raws li lub Kaum Ib Hlis 18, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources tau saib xyuas PFAS cov kab mob sib kis ntawm 91 qhov chaw los ntawm Fabkis Island nyob rau sab hnub poob rau Peshtigo nyob rau sab hnub tuaj.

Koj tuaj yeem ua li cas yog tias koj muaj PFAS hauv koj cov dej? Cov lus teb yog qhov nyuaj. Nov yog yam uas yuav tsum paub txog navigating hem los ntawm cov tshuaj. 

PFAS yog dab tsi?

PFAS, los yog per- thiab polyfluoroalkyl tshuaj, yog ib chav kawm ntau dua 12,000 human-made compounds. Lawv khaws cia rau hauv ib puag ncig thiab tib neeg lub cev thaum lub sijhawm thiab tsis yooj yim tawg, uas yog vim li cas qee tus neeg hu lawv "tshuaj lom mus ib txhis." Kev sim nce ntxiv yog pom PFAS nyob rau hauv pej xeem cov dej haus, dej hauv av thiab cov dej saum npoo teb chaws.

Vim li cas kuv yuav tsum mob siab rau PFAS? 

Cov kws tshawb fawb tsis tau kawm feem ntau PFAS tob, tab sis lawv txuas ob qhov kev tshawb fawb dav tshaj plaws, PFOA thiab PFOS, mus rau ntau yam ntawm cov teeb meem kev noj qab haus huv. Cov no suav nrog kev hloov pauv cov tshuaj hormones, txo qhov hnyav thaum yug me nyuam, plab hnyuv thiab mob plab, cov roj cholesterol siab, kub siab thaum cev xeeb tub, mob qog noj ntshav thiab qog ntshav thiab txo cov tshuaj tiv thaiv hauv menyuam yaus. 

PFAS tuaj qhov twg? 

PFAS muaj nyob thoob plaws hauv cov neeg siv khoom thiab cov khoom lag luam, xws li cov ntaub thaiv npog, hluav taws kub ua npuas ncauj, ntim khoom noj, roj nplua nyeem, cov khoom siv tsis-stick, xim thiab cov khaub ncaws tsis zoo. Cov neeg Amelikas feem ntau ntsib lawv los ntawm cov khoom noj uas lawv noj, plua plav, thiab kev sib cuag ntawm tes rau qhov ncauj nrog PFAS-kho cov khoom. Tab sis tej zaum koj yuav tsis paub nws, vim tias cov tshuaj feem ntau tsis muaj ntxhiab, tsis muaj xim thiab tsis qab.

Ib daim ntawv qhia qhia txog qhov chaw nyob ze ntawm Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources PFAS kev soj ntsuam kev sib kis. Cov lej los ntawm txhua tus cim qhia txog tus naj npawb ntawm kev tshawb nrhiav qhib hauv txhua lub zej zog. (Courtesy of Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources)

Cov dej kais dej feem ntau yog qhov tseem ceeb ntawm kev raug rau cov neeg nyob ze ntawm qhov chaw muaj kab mob. Tab sis qhov ntawd tsis tau txhais hais tias koj yuav tsum tsis txhob da dej. Me PFAS nkag mus rau hauv lub cev los ntawm daim tawv nqaij, raws li US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Kev da dej thiab ntxuav tais diav nrog PFAS-tsis muaj dej tsis zoo yuav ua rau muaj kev cuam tshuam ntau ntxiv, lub koom haum hais tias. 

PFAS txaus ntshai npaum li cas?

Yuav luag tsis muaj nyiaj PFAS muaj kev nyab xeeb rau kev noj, raws li US Environmental Protection Agency. Lub Rau Hli, lub koom haum tshiab daim ntawv qhia kev noj qab haus huv rau PFOA thiab PFOS. Nws ceeb toom tawm tsam kev noj ntau dua 0.004 qhov chaw ib trillion (ppt) thiab 0.02 ppt ntawm ob lub tebchaw, raws li. Qhov ntawd sib npaug li 4 tee thiab 20 tee dej hauv 1,000 Olympic pas dej ua ke.

Kuv yuav ua li cas thiaj paub yog tias kuv cov dej nyab xeeb haus?

Cov lus teb nyob ntawm seb koj nug leej twg thiab koj nyob qhov twg. EPA tau teeb tsa cov qauv rau pej xeem cov dej haus, uas yuav tsum tau kho cov dej kom tsis pub dhau qhov kev txwv tsis pub muaj kab mob. Tseem tsis tau muaj lub teb chaws tus qauv rau PFAS, yog li ntau lub xeev tau nqis los tsim lawv tus kheej. Lwm tus tsis muaj.

Wisconsin xyoo no tau tsim cov qauv dej haus ntawm 70 ppt rau PFOA thiab PFOS ib leeg thiab ua ke, deb tshaj li tsab ntawv qhia txog kev noj qab haus huv ntawm EPA. Ntau lub tshuab dej hauv Wisconsin tau kuaj pom PFAS saum toj no lossis hauv lub xeev tus qauv. Cov khoom siv hluav taws xob yuav tsum tshaj tawm lawv cov txiaj ntsig kev xeem, uas koj tuaj yeem pom online.

Yuav ua li cas yog tias kuv muaj lub qhov dej ntiag tug?

Tsis yog EPA lossis lub xeev tswj hwm qhov dej ntiag tug. Qhov ntawd txhais tau hais tias 1.7 lab Wisconsinites uas siv lawv lub luag haujlwm rau kev kuaj thiab kho lawv tus kheej cov dej rau PFAS lossis lwm yam kab mob. Lub Department of Natural Resources muaj cov lus qhia dav dav rau kev kuaj kom zoo no. Ntau lub chaw kuaj mob tuaj yeem ua tau xeem dej rau PFAS rau tus nqi. 

Kuv tuaj yeem kho kuv cov dej li cas? 

Ntau lub tshuab lim dej tuaj yeem tshem PFAS los ntawm cov kais dej thiab dej. Koj tuaj yeem nruab lawv qhov twg dej nkag mus rau hauv tsev lossis lub tsev lossis ntawm ib qho chaw tshwj xeeb. Cov kev kho mob muaj xws li granular activated carbon, ion exchange resins thiab thim rov qab osmosis.

"Peb paub tias qhov qis dua ntawm PFOA thiab PFOS, qhov kev pheej hmoo qis dua," EPA ib puag ncig tus kws tshaj lij Jonathan Burkhardt tau hais hauv email. 

Madison, Wis., tus neeg nyob hauv Brad Horn sau cov qauv dej los kuaj rau PFAS hauv Madison, Wis., thaum Lub Yim Hli 8, 2022. Nws tsev neeg tau sau cov dej uas tawm los ntawm lawv lub tshuab lim dej AquaRain thiab xa cov dej mus rau Hauv Cheeb Tsam. Water Authority hauv Connecticut rau kev sim. Cov txiaj ntsig tau rov qab los nrog tsis muaj qhov ntsuas pom tau ntawm PFAS hauv 17 pawg thiab ib qho txiaj ntsig ntawm "qis Tshaj Qhia Tshaj Tawm Tsawg kawg tab sis ntau dua li Txoj Cai Tshawb Nrhiav" rau PFHxS. (Coburn Dukehart / Wisconsin Saib)

EPA tsis pom zoo kom cov tsev neeg muaj kab mob hloov mus rau hauv lub raj mis, vim tias US Food and Drug Administration tsis tau tsim PFAS cov qauv zoo hauv cov dej hauv lub raj mis, thiab tsis tas yuav tsum tau kuaj PFAS, txawm tias International Bottled Water Association hais tias nws cov tswvcuab kuaj cov tshuaj txhua xyoo.

Kuv cov kev xaiv lim dej yog dab tsi? 

Granular activated carbon systems, feem ntau yog qhov kev xaiv kim tshaj plaws, tuaj yeem tshem tawm qee qhov PFAS, suav nrog PFOA thiab PFOS. Lawv ua haujlwm los ntawm kev khi PFAS rau cov pa roj carbon monoxide. Tab sis cov tshuaj molecularly luv luv, hu ua short-chain PFAS, yuav plam los ntawm. Koj tuaj yeem nruab lub lim raws li tsev neeg lossis hauv dab dej, faucets, tub yees thiab pitchers. 

Ion txauv resins ua zoo li me me hlau nplaum uas ntes PFAS molecules. Lawv feem ntau ua tau zoo dua li cov pa roj carbon activated, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog thaum snatching short-chain PFAS. Ob lub thev naus laus zis feem ntau raug nqi tsawg dua qhov rov qab osmosis systems, uas tuaj yeem khiav mus txog $ 1,000 txog $ 2,000.

Rov qab osmosis cov cuab yeej quab yuam cov dej siab dhau los ntawm daim nyias nyias nrog cov pores me me kom cais cov tshuaj, suav nrog cov saw luv luv PFAS, los ntawm dej. Txawm li cas los xij, thev naus laus zis yuav tsum muaj cov dej ntim loj, thiab nws tso tawm PFAS-tainted backwash rau hauv cov kav dej lossis cov kav dej phwj - uas muaj peev xwm rov ua kom cov pa paug rau hauv ib puag ncig.

Yanna Liang, tus xibfwb ntawm ib puag ncig thiab kev tsim vaj tsev nyob ruaj khov ntawm State University of New York ntawm Albany hais tias "Tsis muaj ib qho ntawm cov txheej txheem no zoo meej." "Nws nyob ntawm qhov tseeb PFAS nyob hauv dej."

Yog tias koj muaj peev xwm them taus nws, koj tuaj yeem siv ntau txoj kev kho mob ua ntu zus los ua kom muaj txiaj ntsig zoo. Cov txheej txheem ntawd hu ua "kev kho mob tsheb ciav hlau."

Cov tshuab no ua haujlwm tau zoo npaum li cas?

Txhua lub thev naus laus zis tuaj yeem txo ntau hom PFAS mus rau qib tsis tuaj yeem kuaj pom, tshaj li 99% tshem tawm hauv chav kuaj thiab qhov chaw tiag tiag, raws li EPA kev tshuaj xyuas ntawm kev tshawb fawb tshawb fawb. Txawm li cas los xij, tsis yog txhua yam khoom siv sib npaug sib npaug. 

Cov kws tshawb fawb ntawm Duke University thiab North Carolina State University tau sim 76 point-of-siv lim thiab 13 point-of-entry systems thiab pom tias rov qab osmosis lim thiab ob-theem lim uas siv lub tsheb ciav hlau kho mob txo PFAS los ntawm 94% lossis ntau dua.

Madison tus neeg nyob hauv Brad Horn sau cov qauv dej los kuaj rau PFAS hauv Madison, Wis., thaum Lub Yim Hli 8, 2022. (Coburn Dukehart / Wisconsin Watch)

Qhov nruab nrab, activated carbon tshem tawm tsuas yog 73% ntawm PFAS paug. Tab sis cov ntxaij lim dej carbon tau ua tsis raug. Qee zaum lawv tshem tawm tag nrho PFAS, thaum lwm lub sijhawm lawv tsis muaj txiaj ntsig.

Kev tswj xyuas kom zoo yog qhov tseem ceeb, thiab. Koj yuav tsum hloov cov lim lossis cov cartridges raws li cov lus qhia ntawm cov chaw tsim khoom, vim tias PFAS tuaj yeem tawg los ntawm kev tawg lossis saturated. PFAS tseem tuaj yeem tshem tawm los ntawm cov lim dej siv cov pa roj carbon ntau dua li qhov concentration ntawm PFAS hauv cov dej tsis kho.

Rov qab osmosis yog "tus qauv kub" rau siab PFAS ntau, tab sis cov lim dej ua haujlwm tau zoo rau ntau tus neeg uas kho qis dua, hais Riley Mulhern, tus kws tshaj lij ib puag ncig ntawm RTI International.

Kuv yuav tsum tso siab rau lub tshuab lim dej twg?

Wisconsin cov kws saib xyuas kev noj qab haus huv pom zoo kom yuav khoom a ntaus ntawv tau ntawv pov thawj los ntawm American Standards Institute thiab NSF, lub koom haum kuaj khoom thiab ntawv pov thawj. Txhawm rau ua raws li NSF cov qauv, cov cuab yeej yuav tsum txo qis PFOA thiab PFOS kom qis dua 70 ppt.

Tab sis feem ntau NSF-kuaj lim tuaj yeem txo PFOA thiab PFOS mus rau qib tsis paub, raws li NSF. Lub koom haum npaj yuav hloov kho nws cov qauv PFAS thaum Lub Ib Hlis 2023.

Cov kev kho mob puas muaj qhov tsis zoo? 

Yog lawm. Lawv tuaj yeem tso cov khib nyiab pov tseg, nrog rau cov lim dej thiab cov resins. Cov no tuaj yeem mus rau qhov chaw pov tseg lossis qhov cub, qhov chaw uas lawv tuaj yeem rov muab PFAS rov qab rau hauv ib puag ncig. Cov kws tshawb fawb yog kawm cov txheej txheem ntawm kev rhuav tshem PFAS-tainted cov ntaub ntawv - xws li electrochemical oxidation mus rau pob-milling - tab sis raws li Tsoomfwv Meskas Lub Tsev Haujlwm Saib Xyuas Kev Ruaj Ntseg, tsis muaj txoj hauv kev tseem tuaj yeem "ua kom puas PFAS tag nrho."

Cov tshuab dej me me yuav ntsib cov teeb meem pom ntau dua li cov tswv tsev, hais tias David Cwiertny, tus xibfwb ntawm University of Iowa engineering thiab tus thawj coj ntawm Lub Tsev Haujlwm Saib Xyuas Kev Noj Qab Haus Huv ntawm Kev Tiv Thaiv Ib puag ncig.

"Lawv yuav tsum paub seb yuav muab pov tseg li cas rau hauv txoj hauv kev uas tsis yog muab nws rov qab rau hauv ib puag ncig thiab ua rau lwm tus muaj teeb meem."

Kuv yuav tsum paub dab tsi txog kev txhim kho kev kho mob? 

Yog tias koj nruab ib qho kev kho mob, Wisconsin Lub Tsev Haujlwm Saib Xyuas Kev Noj Qab Haus Huv pom zoo kom xaiv a tso cai tus kav dej.

Yog tias kuv lub qhov dej ntiag tug muaj paug, kuv puas yuav tsum khawb qhov tshiab? 

Lub Department of Natural Resources tau pab Kyle Burton, tus thawj coj saib xyuas dej haus thiab dej hauv av tau hais tias cov tswv tsev txiav txim siab seb qhov ntawd yog lub tswv yim zoo, lossis yog tias kev kho mob zoo dua. Nws nyob ntawm ntau yam, nrog rau cov geology hauv zos.

Cov qhov dej tshiab tsis tau lees paub tias yuav xa cov dej dawb PFAS, nws hais tias, thiab qee qhov kev pheej hmoo nkag mus rau hauv cov dej hauv dej uas muaj lwm yam kab mob. Lwm qhov kev pheej hmoo ntawm kev khawb los ntawm qee qhov av: qhov muaj peev xwm ntawm cov kab mob sib kis nrog PFAS.

Kev khawb ib lub qhov dej kuj muaj nqi, tab sis cov kev pab hauv xeev tej zaum yuav muaj los them rau nws.

Lub chaw haujlwm tsis ntev los no tau tshaj tawm txog $ 10 lab nyiaj pab kev pabcuam - siv tsoomfwv kev pab cuam kis thoob qhov txhia chaw - rau cov uas xav hloov, rov tsim kho, kho lossis tso tseg cov qhov dej ntiag tug uas muaj kab mob arsenic, kab mob, nitrate los yog PFAS. Kawm ntxiv ntawm no

LubWisconsin Watch (www.WisconsinWatch.org) koom tes nrog WPR, PBS Wisconsin, lwm yam xov xwm tshaj tawm thiab University of Wisconsin-Madison Tsev Kawm Ntawv ntawm Kev Sau Xov Xwm thiab Kev Sib Txuas Lus. Txhua yam haujlwm tsim, luam tawm, tshaj tawm lossis tshaj tawm los ntawm Wisconsin Watch tsis tas yuav cuam tshuam txog kev xav lossis kev xav ntawm UW-Madison lossis ib qho ntawm nws cov koom tes.

Rov luam tawm peb cov ntawv dawb, hauv online lossis luam tawm, raws li daim ntawv tso cai Creative Commons.

Nrov dab neeg los ntawm Wisconsin Watch

Bennet Goldstein / Wisconsin SaibKev Tshawb Fawb Tshaj Tawm

Bennet Goldstein tshaj tawm txog dej thiab kev ua liaj ua teb raws li Wisconsin Watch's Report for America tus neeg sawv cev ntawm Mississippi River Basin Ag & Water Desk - kev sib koom tes tshaj tawm thoob plaws hauv Pas Dej. Ua ntej qhov no, Goldstein tau nyob hauv pab pawg xov xwm tshiab ntawm Omaha World-Herald hauv Nebraska. Nws tau siv feem ntau ntawm nws txoj haujlwm ntawm cov ntaub ntawv niaj hnub hauv Iowa, suav nrog Dubuque Telegraph Herald. Goldstein txoj haujlwm tau txais khoom plig, suav nrog Associated Press Media Editors khoom plig rau qhov kev piav qhia txog tub ceev xwm tua nyob rau hauv Wisconsin nyob deb nroog, thiab Iowa Newspaper Association khoom plig rau cov yeeb yaj kiab uas piav qhia txog qhov cuam tshuam ntawm kev poob ntawm kev nyab xeeb hauv zej zog ntawm Dubuque's Marshallese zej zog . Nws kawm tiav qib Master los ntawm University of Wisconsin-Madison.