Sheng Lee Riechers, uas qhia ntawm no nrog nws tus txiv, Karl Riechers, thiab lawv tus ntxhais, Lilith, yog ib tug Hmoob Asmeskas uas nyob rau sab qaum teb Wisconsin tau 30 xyoo. Photo taken on Lub Ob Hlis 9, 2022. (Wm. Glasheen/USA TODAY NETWORK-Wisconsin)
Sijhawm Nyeem Ntawv: 7 feeb

Daim no tsim tawm rau Xov Xwm Tshiab, ib lub koom haum xov xwm hauv zos hauv Northeast Wisconsin.

Microsoft tau muab kev txhawb nqa nyiaj txiag rau Greater Green Bay Community Foundation thiab Community Foundation rau cheeb tsam Fox Valley rau qhov kev pib no.

Sheng Lee Riechers nco ntsoov mus koom lub tsev kawm ntawv Neenah thiab cov xwm txheej hauv zej zog uas cov tub rog qub tub rog raug thov kom sawv thiab raug lees paub los ua haujlwm rau lub tebchaws.

Nws txiv, ib tug tub rog Hmoob uas tau tawm tsam cov tub rog communist raws li kev coj ntawm tsoomfwv Meskas thaum Tsov Rog Nyab Laj, ib txwm tsis kam sawv, tsis paub meej tias nws yuav tau txais li cas.

“Kuv zoo li, 'Txiv, sawv. Koj tau tawm tsam hauv tsov rog,' "Richers nco qab. “Nws ib txwm ua tau txawv txawv rau nws. Kuv xav kom ntau haiv neeg to taub tias yog vim li cas Hmoob thiaj li nyob ntawm no thiab tias Hmoob yog neeg Amelikas tiag tiag, yog tsis muaj neeg Amelikas coob dua li neeg Amelikas. Lawv tau tawm tsam rau lub tebchaws, thiab lawv tau tawm tsam kev ywj pheej. "

(Tebchaws Asmeskas hnub no NETWORK-Wisconsin)

Cov tub rog Hmoob tsis raug lees paub tias yog US qub tub rog, tab sis lawv yog cov phooj ywg ntawm Teb Chaws Asmeskas thiab tau them tus nqi hnyav thaum thiab tom qab tsov rog. Thaum US cov tub rog tawm ntawm Nyab Laj, cov yeej tau tsim txom cov tub rog Hmoob thiab lawv tsev neeg kom pab US

Hmoob thiaj khiav tawm teb chaws mus nyob rau pem toj siab teb chaws nplog mus rau cov neeg tawg rog nyob Thaib teb, qhov chaw lawv nyob, tej lub sij hawm tau ntau xyoo, mus txog rau thaum lawv tau rov los nyob hauv Teb Chaws Asmeskas, Fab Kis thiab lwm qhov.

Txawm tias niaj hnub no, Riechers txiv tsis raug tso cai rov qab los rau hauv tebchaws Nplog, qhov chaw uas tsoomfwv tsis kam lees nws daim ntawv thov vixaj mus ntsib tsev neeg xyoo 2019.

Qhov kev tsis lees paub ntxiv tias Wisconsin, tsis yog Laos, yog lub tsev rau Riechers tsev neeg thiab ntau txhiab tus neeg Asmeskas cov neeg Asmeskas, thiab lawv lub xub ntiag nthuav dav thiab txhawb lub neej ntawm no.

Kev suav pej xeem xyoo 2020 tau qhia tias cov neeg Esxias Asmeskas cov pej xeem hauv Brown, Outagamie thiab Winnebago cov nroog loj hlob los ntawm 16,330 xyoo 2010 txog 22,189 xyoo 2020. Qhov ntawd yog ze li ntawm 36% nce, piv nrog 10% nce ntawm tag nrho cov pejxeem.

Cov ntaub ntawv suav pej xeem uas tau tshaj tawm txog tam sim no tsis cais cov pej xeem Hmoob Asmeskas los ntawm cov neeg Esxias Asmeskas, tab sis US Census Bureau's 2019 American Community Survey muab kev nkag siab.

Qhov kev tshawb fawb xyoo 2019 kwv yees Wisconsin cov neeg Esxias Asmeskas cov neeg nyob ze li ntawm 200,000. Hmoob yog ib haiv neeg Asmesliskas coob tshaj plaws hauv lub xeev, muaj ntau tshaj 58,000 tus neeg, lossis 29% ntawm tag nrho. 

'Kuv paub tias lawv tsis nyiam kuv'

Hmoob cov neeg tawg rog tuaj txog Wisconsin nthwv dej, pib thaum xyoo 1970s thiab xaus rau xyoo 2000s.

Long Vue muaj 14 xyoo 1980 thaum nws tuaj txog hauv Kaukauna nrog rau nws niam nws txiv, peb tug viv ncaus thiab plaub tug kwv. Lawv tau npaj mus rau Austin, Texas, tab sis nws tus txiv ntxawm, uas yog tsev neeg tus neeg txhawb nqa, tau tsiv mus rau Appleton. Tom qab ntawd tsev neeg tau raug xa mus rau Fox Cities.

Cov Hmoob tawg rog muaj ob peb yam khoom thiab xav tau kev pab los ntawm ib tus neeg txhawb nqa.

"Ib tug neeg tawg rog nyob hauv nruab nrab ntawm kev ua tsov ua rog," Vue hais rau USA TODAY NETWORK-Wisconsin. "Koj muaj hmoo yog tias koj muaj sia nyob thiab koj muaj sia nyob."

Vue hais tias cov Hmoob tawg rog tsis tau txais thiab ntsib kev thab plaub tom tsev kawm ntawv. Cov lus txwv tsis pub muaj kev sib txuas lus sib txawv lossis qhia txog kev thab plaub, yog li Vue tau kawm kom tsis txhob muaj teeb meem.

"Kev ntxub ntxaug thiab kev ntxub ntxaug, koj tuaj yeem xav tias," nws hais. "Kuv paub tias lawv tsis nyiam kuv vim lawv yuav qw rau kuv thiab qw rau kuv tawm ntawm cov pej xeem. Kuv tsuas nyob deb ntawm lawv thiab sim ua kuv tus kheej lub neej. "

Long Vue, tus thawj coj ntawm NEW Hmong Professionals, pab ntawm qhov chaw txhaj tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob ntawm Elisha D. Smith Public Library hauv Menasha, Wis., thaum Lub Ib Hlis 12, 2022. (Dan Powers/USA TODAY NETWORK-Wisconsin)

Pao Lor, 49-xyoo-laus Kimberly, yug hauv Nplog teb thiab tseem yog menyuam yaus.

Nws tsev neeg tau koom nrog Asmeskas thaum Tsov Rog Nyab Laj. Thaum Asmeskas rub tawm, nws tsev neeg tau mus nkaum ua ib feem ntawm kev tawm tsam rau cov tub rog communist. Nws txiv raug tua los ntawm kev tawm tsam tom qab nws tawm hauv qhov chaw nkaum mus nrhiav kev pab sab nraud xws li mov thiab ntsev ua txhaum ntawm pawg neeg txoj cai.

Thaum Lor tsev neeg khiav teb chaws Nplog mus rau Thaib teb, nws niam tuag thaum hla tus dej Mekong.

Lor tau siv sijhawm nyob hauv cov chaw tawg rog hauv Thaib teb ua ntej tuaj txog hauv Long Beach, California. Xyoo 1980, nws tsiv mus rau Green Bay, qhov chaw uas nws txiv ntxawm tau nyob.

Nws hais tias "Peb coob leej muaj 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 xyoo," nws hais. "Yog li rau peb ntau tus, Asmeskas yog peb lub tsev tiag tiag."

Lor kawm tiav los ntawm Green Bay East High School hauv 1989, tau txais bachelor's thiab master's degrees los ntawm University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh thiab ib tus kws kho mob los ntawm UW-Madison. Tam sim no nws yog tus xibfwb qhia ntawv thiab lub rooj zaum ntawm UW-Green Bay.

Txawm li cas los xij, nws tsis koom nrog nws lub neej nrog American Npau suav - txoj hauv kev mus rau kev txav mus los ntawm kev sib npaug rau txhua tus. Lor lub sij hawm tsis muaj lub tswv yim tias nws tab tom ua dab tsi thiab tsuas yog sim ua ke ua ib tus neeg tuaj txawv teb chaws. 

Nws piav txog txoj kev taug no hauv nws zaj dab neeg, "Modern Jungles: A Hmong Refugee's Childhood Story of Survival."

Midwestern passive aggression

Riechers, 32, loj hlob hauv Neenah thiab tam sim no nyob hauv Menasha nrog nws tus txiv thiab lawv tus ntxhais 2 xyoos. Ib yam li cov Hmoob Meskas feem coob nyob hauv Wisconsin niaj hnub no, Riechers yug hauv Teb Chaws Asmeskas

Nws niam nws txiv yog thawj tiam neeg tsiv teb tsaws chaw, tuaj ua neeg tawg rog los ntawm Nplog teb thaum xyoo 1970s. Lawv thawj zaug nyob hauv Memphis, Tennessee, ua ntej tsiv mus rau La Crosse, Black River Falls thiab thaum kawg Neenah. Riechers yug hauv Black River Falls thiab tuaj rau Neenah thaum nws muaj 2 xyoos.

Riechers tau hais tias "Muaj ntau tus phooj ywg neeg dawb huv hauv zej zog uas tau puag kuv tsev neeg thiab tau pab peb tau txais txiaj ntsig zoo," Riechers tau hais.

Nws kawm tiav hauv Neenah High School hauv 2008 thiab tau txais bachelor's degree hauv kev sau xov xwm thiab kawm tiav qib siab hauv kev tswj hwm kev lag luam los ntawm UW-Oshkosh. Nws ua haujlwm Candeo Creative, lub koom haum ua lag luam thiab tshaj tawm hauv Oshkosh, ua ntej raug ntiav ua Appleton tus kws tshaj lij kev sib txuas lus hauv xyoo 2020.

Riechers tau hais tias sab qaum teb sab hnub tuaj Wisconsin tau pom tias muaj kev txaus siab zam, yog tias tsis txais tos, cov neeg ntawm ntau haiv neeg. Muaj kev ntxub txhua qhov chaw, nws hais tias, tab sis nyob rau hauv Upper Midwest, nws yog me ntsis tsawg menacing.

Nws tau hais tias "Nws yog qhov tsis txaus ntseeg me ntsis ntxiv," nws hais. "Kuv yuav tsis nkag rau hauv koj lub ntsej muag, tab sis kuv yuav ua ntau yam qhia rau koj paub tias kuv tsis nyiam koj."

Sheng Lee Riechers tos txais nws tus txiv, Karl, thiab tus ntxhais 2 xyoos, Lilith, ntawm lawv chav tsev hauv Menasha, Wis., Lub Ob Hlis 9, 2022. (Wm. Glasheen/USA TODAY NETWORK-Wisconsin)

Kev sib cav ntawm kab lis kev cai thiab haiv neeg tau nce mus txog qhov kawg thaum lub Kaum Ib Hlis 2004, tom qab Chai Soua Vang, ib tug Hmoob Meskas los ntawm Nplog Teb, tua yim leej, tua rau, nyob rau sab qaum teb Wisconsin. Vang thov kev tiv thaiv tus kheej, liam tias cov neeg tua neeg dawb tau ntsib nws tom qab tsis txhob txwm ua txhaum cai. Nws raug txim ntawm rau qhov suav ntawm thawj-degree txhob txwm tua neeg thiab peb suav ntawm kev sim tua neeg thiab raug txiav txim mus rau lub neej hauv tsev lojcuj yam tsis muaj kev zam.

Cov ntaub ntawv no tau nyiam thoob tebchaws. Riechers yog ib tug neeg kawm tiav qib high school thaum lub sijhawm ntawd.

Nws tau hais tias "Muaj kev ntxub ntxaug rau cov neeg Hmoob," nws hais. "Tsis muaj qhov xwm txheej ncaj qha, tab sis kuv nco qab cov menyuam yaus muaj cov ntawv nplaum uas hais tias, 'Txuag mos lwj, tua Hmoob.' ”

Resurgent haiv neeg kev ntxub ntxaug 

Tom qab ib lub sijhawm ntawm kev txhim kho, tus kabmob kis kabmob kis tau zoo nyob rau thaum ntxov 2020 tau rov ua dua tshiab ntawm kev ntxub ntxaug lwm haiv neeg rau cov neeg Asmeskas Asmeskas. 

Tom qab ntawd-Thawj Tswj Hwm Donald Trump cuam tshuam rau cov neeg Esxias uas yog tus scapegoat thiab ua rau muaj kev tawm tsam Asian los ntawm kev rov hu nws tias "tus kab mob Suav."

Anti-Asian kev ntxub ntxaug ua txhaum cai plaub zaug hauv 2021 hauv ntau tshaj li kaum ob ntawm Asmeskas cov nroog loj, raws li kev tshuaj xyuas los ntawm Lub Tsev Haujlwm Saib Xyuas Kev Ntxub Ntxaug thiab Kev Nyuaj Siab ntawm California State University, San Bernardino.

Cov neeg nyob hauv lub xyoo dhau los nrog lub siab-wrenching dab neeg ntawm kev thab plaub thiab kev ntxub ntxaug los ntxias Appleton Common Council kom dhau qhov kev daws teeb meem rau xenophobia, kev ntxub ntxaug thiab kev tawm tsam Asian.

Chia Lee, tus kws qhia ntawv hauv Appleton, tau hais tias tsis ntev los no kev ntxub ntxaug tawm tsam cov neeg Asmeskas Asmeskas ua rau nws ntshai rau nws lub neej.

Lee hais rau pawg sab laj hais tias "Kuv nyiam taug kev ncig ib puag ncig, tab sis kuv tau tso tseg vim kuv txhawj xeeb txog lub tsheb hla kuv vim yog kuv haiv neeg," Lee hais rau pawg sab laj.

Tina Thor, ib tug neeg nyob hauv Appleton, hais tias thaum mus yuav hmoov, ib tug poj niam qw rau nws "rov qab mus rau koj lub tebchaws."

Thor hais tias "Kuv xav tsis thoob vim qhov no tshwm sim hauv lub nroog uas kuv yug thiab loj hlob,"

Cov neeg Esxias Asmeskas tau ntsib tib yam kev txhawj xeeb txog kev noj qab haus huv los ntawm tus kabmob kis thoob qhov txhia chaw xws li lwm tus hauv zej zog tab sis tau muaj lub nra hnyav ntxiv ntawm kev raug liam tias tsis ncaj ncees rau nws.

'Peb tau tawm tsam rau kev ywj pheej'

Lor hais tias "zoo nkauj ze li 100%" ntawm cov neeg thoj nam tawg rog Hmoob nyob ntawm kev noj qab haus huv thiab pej xeem vaj tse thaum lawv tuaj rau Wisconsin thaum xyoo 1970s thiab thaum ntxov 1980s.

Niaj hnub no lawv tsis tau tsuas yog ua kom lub neej zoo rau lawv tus kheej thiab lawv tsev neeg xwb, tab sis lawv tau los ua cov neeg koom tes hauv zej zog. Lawv yog cov kws qhia ntawv, cov tswv lag luam, cov kws qhia, cov thawj coj nom tswv, cov phooj ywg thiab cov neeg nyob ze.

Lor, piv txwv li, saib xyuas ntau dua 25 tus xibfwb, kws qhia ntawv, cov neeg ua haujlwm thiab cov kws qhia txuas ntxiv ntawm UW-Green Bay.

Riechers tuav kev sib txuas lus rau ib lub nroog ntawm 73,000.

Vue yog tus thawj coj ntawm NEW Hmong Professionals, ib lub koom haum uas tsis muaj txiaj ntsig uas teb rau cov kev xav tau ntawm lub zej zog, xws li kev teeb tsa cov chaw txhaj tshuaj tiv thaiv COVID-19 pop-up.

Hmoob tau coj ntau haiv neeg, kev pom kev nom kev tswv, kev ua lag luam thiab kev pab zej zog rau sab qaum teb Wisconsin. Inroads kuj tau ua nyob rau hauv lub chaw xaiv tsa, raws li muaj pov thawj los ntawm Maiyoua Thao txoj haujlwm nyob rau hauv Appleton pawg sab laj.

Teng Cha, nruab nrab sab xis, thiab Chai Yee Cha, sab laug, koom nrog lwm cov tub rog qub tub rog uas tau tawm tsam los ntawm CIA los tham txog lawv qhov xwm txheej hauv xyoo 2004 thaum raug kaw ntawm Wat Tham Krabok lub yeej thoj nam tawg rog hauv Thaib teb. (Sharon Cekad / Appleton Post-Crescent)

Vue, uas kawm tiav qib bachelor's degree hauv kev sau xov xwm thiab kev nom kev tswv los ntawm UW-Eau Claire, lees paub kev nkag siab thiab kev lees paub ntawm cov neeg Hmoob nyob rau 40 xyoo dhau los, tab sis nws tsis xav tias lawv tau ua tiav kev sib koom ua ke.

Nws hais tias cov Hmoob Amelikas tseem tab tom mob siab rau lawv lub khw muag khoom noj, thiab lawv tseem tsis tau muaj kev sib luag nrog lawv cov neeg dawb hauv kev ua haujlwm thiab kev nce qib.

Lor hais tias cov Hmoob Meskas maj mam pom lawv txoj hauv kev ua lag luam thiab kev nom kev tswv tab sis tseem tsis tau mus txog qib siab hauv ob qho chaw. Nws hais tias cov lag luam uas yog Hmoob, nyiam ua haujlwm rau Hmoob feem coob. Nws xav tias lawv nyob rau ntawm verge ntawm ib yam dab tsi loj dua.

Riechers hais tias Hmoob muaj keeb kwm nrhiav kev ywj pheej thiab kev ywj pheej. Lawv tau tsiv teb tsaws chaw ntawm Tuam Tshoj mus rau toj roob hauv pes ntawm Nplog, Nyab Laj thiab Thaib teb thaum xyoo 1800 tom qab Suav cov thawj coj nrhiav kev sib koom ua ke rau lawv thiab lwm haiv neeg tsawg hauv Suav kab lis kev cai.

Hmoob muaj kev ywj pheej ywj pheej uas ua raws li Asmeskas cov tswv yim thaum thiab tom qab Tsov Rog Nyab Laj.

Riechers tau hais tias "Nws tsis tshua muaj neeg Asmeskas ntau dua li zaj dab neeg Hmoob," “Peb yog neeg tsiv teb tsaws chaw. Peb sib ntaus sib tua rau lub teb chaws. Peb tau tawm tsam rau kev ywj pheej. "

Kev nthuav dav kev nkag siab thiab kev txaus siab ntawm Hmoob Asmeskas kev paub tuaj yeem txhim kho kev coj noj coj ua thiab muaj peev xwm ua kev zoo siab rau qhov sib txawv, tsis yog tsuas yog zam rau lawv lossis, qhov phem tshaj, tsim txom lawv.

Qhov ntawd, dhau los, tuaj yeem yooj yim hloov pauv rau cov neeg tom ntej - tsis yog Afghans, Ukrainians lossis Congolese - uas yuav hu rau sab qaum teb Wisconsin tsev.

Hu rau Duke Behnke ntawm 920-993-7176 lossis dbehnke@gannett.com. Ua raws nws hauv Twitter ntawm @DukeBehnke.

Rov luam tawm peb cov ntawv dawb, hauv online lossis luam tawm, raws li daim ntawv tso cai Creative Commons.

Nrov dab neeg los ntawm Wisconsin Watch

Duke Behnke / The Post-CrescentTsoom fwv saib xyuas reporter

Duke Behnke yog tsoomfwv saib xyuas tus neeg sau xov xwm rau The Post-Crescent. Nws muaj 34 xyoo ntawm kev paub txog tsoomfwv, kev kawm, kev qhia txog kev nyab xeeb thiab kev nyab xeeb rau pej xeem.