Sijhawm Nyeem Ntawv: 7 feeb

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Tiv thaiv koj cov dej haus: Koj tuaj yeem ua dab tsi

Qhov no Series

Yog Poob Ntawm Cov Kais Dej yog ib txoj kev tshawb nrhiav kev pheej hmoo rau cov dej haus thoob plaws Wisconsin. Nyeem ntxiv.

Puas muaj teeb meem nrog koj cov dej zoo? Xa email rau peb ntawm tswv yim@wisconsinwatch.org.

Hauv xyoo 2014, lub zos Sussex nyob rau sab qab teb Wisconsin tau ua qhov kev tshawb pom tsis txaus ntseeg. Cov khoom siv hluav taws xob hluav taws xob radium, ib qho kab mob uas tshwm sim nyob rau hauv bedrock thoob plaws hauv cheeb tsam, tau nkag mus rau hauv ob ntawm nws xya qhov dej.

Nws tsis yog ib qho surprise. Radium tau dhau los ua teeb meem hauv dej haus rau ntau lub xeev Wisconsin los ntawm Green Bay mus rau Illinois ciam teb.

Lub nroog Waukesha tau thov kom hloov nws cov dej hauv av uas muaj radium nrog Lake Michigan dej. Yog tias pom zoo, txoj kev npaj tsis sib haum xeeb yuav kos thawj qhov kev sim ntawm ib qho kev qhia hauv a 2008 International Compact uas tso cai rau kev hloov pauv dej hauv Great Lakes tsuas yog thaum lub nroog - xws li Lub Nroog Waukesha - hla lub phiab uas pub dej rau hauv Great Lakes.

Lwm qhov tseem ceeb ua rau Wisconsin qhov teeb meem radium yog qhov tsis muaj kev tswj hwm muaj lub qhov dej muaj zog, uas tuaj yeem ua rau depletion ntawm cov dej hauv av. Raws li cov zej zog xws li Sussex laum qhov tob tob rau hauv cov dej ntws tsawg zuj zus kom ua tau raws li qhov xav tau ntawm cov dej loj hlob, lawv tau rub cov kab mob radium ntau ntxiv thiab tsim kev sib tw rau pej xeem kev noj qab haus huv.

Melissa Weiss, tus pab tswj hwm rau Sussex tau hais tias "Nws yog ib qho kev txhawj xeeb rau txhua tus neeg nyob rau sab qab teb sab hnub tuaj Wisconsin tias ntau dua radium yuav tig mus,"

Nyob rau hauv 2006, 42 cov zej zog nyob rau sab hnub tuaj Wisconsin qhia txog qib radium ntawm ze li ntawm 15 picocuries ib liter - peb zaug US Environmental Protection Agency qhov txwv ntawm 5 pCi / L.

Hais txog 25 Wisconsin dej systems tau tshaj cov kab mob siab tshaj plaws nyob rau ob xyoos dhau los, uas txhais tau hais tias cov qib radium tseem nyob ntau dua 5 pCi / L rau ntau tshaj ib xyoos. Qee lwm cov zej zog, xws li Madison, tau pom spikes nyob rau hauv ib tug neeg qhov dej siab tshaj 5 pCi/L tab sis tsis ua txhaum vim hais tias cov theem tau nce rau tsawg tshaj li ib xyoos.

Tus xibfwb ntawm University of Wisconsin-Green Bay John Luczaj tau sau ntau yam kab mob sib kis hauv Wisconsin cov dej hauv av, suav nrog radium. Radium muaj ntau nyob rau hauv bedrock khiav hauv qab ntug sab hnub tuaj ntawm lub xeev los ntawm Illinois mus rau Green Bay. UW-Green Bay

Vim tias cov qib radium siab hauv cov dej hauv av tob, cov zej zog nyob ib puag ncig Green Bay xyoo dhau los no tau pib txais dej los ntawm Manitowoc, uas rub feem ntau ntawm nws cov dej haus los ntawm Lake Michigan.

Qhov luaj li cas ntawm radium paug hauv cov qhov dej ntiag tug yog suav tias yog qhov tsawg heev vim tias feem ntau tsis tau tho rau hauv qhov sib sib zog nqus geological formations. Tsis muaj qhov yuav tsum tau kuaj rau radium hauv cov qhov dej ntiag tug.

Tsis tas li ntawd, "Peb tsis paub qhov radium concentration hauv cov qhov dej ntiag tug vim qhov kev sim no kim (kwv yees $ 200), yog li tsis tshua muaj leej twg sim rau nws," said John Luczaj, University of Wisconsin-Green Bay tus xibfwb ntawm geoscience uas tau kawm. radium hauv Wisconsin cov dej.

Lub nroog Waukesha tau tawm tsam nrog cov kab mob radium hauv nws cov dej tau ntau tshaj li ob xyoo lawm. Qhov kev thov kom coj mus rhaub rau hauv Lake Michigan, uas tau ua pom zoo los ntawm lub xeev Department of Natural Resources, yog tawm tsam los ntawm ntau tus environmentalists. Waukesha tau thov kom hloov tag nrho cov nyiaj ntawm nws qhov kev tshem tawm mus rau Lake Michigan nrog cov dej khib nyiab kho los ntawm tus dej hauv paus.

Cov neeg thuam ntshai qhov kev thov los ntawm Waukesha, uas nyob sab nraum Great Lakes phiab uas ntws mus rau Lake Michigan, tuaj yeem qhib qhov rooj rau kev thov ntxiv mus rau hauv Great Lakes los ntawm sab nraum lub phiab. Qhov loj ntawm Waukesha thaj chaw pabcuam dej, uas ncav dhau lub nroog txwv, kuj tau raug thuam los ntawm cov neeg tawm tsam uas ntshai cov dej yuav raug siv los ua kom muaj kev sib kis.

Lub Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Council tau tuav lub rooj sib hais rau pej xeem thaum Lub Ob Hlis ntawm qhov kev thov, uas yuav tsum tau pom zoo los ntawm cov thawj coj los ntawm tag nrho yim lub xeev Great Lakes. Cov council tswj hwm yim lub xeev compact uas tswj kev siv dej hauv Great Lakes.

Yog tias qhov kev thov raug pom zoo, Waukesha yuav siv kwv yees li $ 206 lab los daws nws cov teeb meem radium.

Kev noj qab haus huv txaus ntshai ntawm radium

Raws li Tsoom Fwv Teb Chaws Saib Xyuas Kab Mob thiab Tiv Thaiv, radium yog ib qho kev paub txog carcinogen nyob rau theem siab, ua rau cov pob txha, lub mis thiab mob qog noj ntshav. Tab sis muaj kev tshawb fawb me me ntsuam xyuas cov koob tshuaj tsawg, qhov ntev ntev ntawm cov dej haus.

Los ntawm 1917 txog 1926, US Radium Corp. hauv Orange, New Jersey, tsim cov khoom ci hauv qhov tsaus ntuj. Cov nroj tsuag ua haujlwm ntau tshaj li ib puas tus neeg ua haujlwm, feem ntau yog poj niam, los pleev xim radium-lighted watches thiab cov cuab yeej. Kaum ob ntawm "cov ntxhais radium" tuaj nrog hluav taws xob muaj mob thiab tuag, ua rau pom kev phom sij ntawm high-theem radium raug. Kev raug qis qis hauv cov dej haus tseem tsis tau kawm.
Rutgers University

Ib qho me me ntawm radium tuaj yeem sib sau hauv tib neeg lub cev pob txha thaum lub sijhawm, ua rau cov pob txha thiab cov ntaub so ntswg puas, raws li US Geological Survey.

Ib tus neeg haus ob litres dej uas muaj 5 pCi / L ntawm radium txhua hnub rau 70 xyoo muaj 1 ntawm 10,000 qhov kev pheej hmoo rau kev tsim mob qog noj ntshav, raws li kev tshawb fawb geological. Lwm yam kev puas tsuaj ntawm kev haus dej radium-tainted muaj xws li anemia, cataracts thiab fractured hniav, raws li CDC.

EPA tau pib tswj hwm radium hauv dej hauv xyoo 1977. Txoj cai yog ua raws li kev tshawb fawb txog kev noj qab haus huv ntawm kev ua haujlwm xws li "radium ntxhais" ntawm xyoo 1920s uas tau noj cov tshuaj radium uas tuag taus thaum lawv yaim lawv cov txhuam hniav thaum pleev xim ci-hauv-tus- tsaus muag ntsej muag. Los ntawm 1927, ntau tshaj 50 tus poj niam tau tuag.

Kevin Masarik, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point tus kws tshaj lij kev kawm txog dej hauv av, hais tias cov qauv dej haus nruj tau ua kom cov pa paug paug tsawg hauv cov dej hauv nroog.
UW-Stevens Point

"Kev sib raug zoo ntawm tus nqi ntawm cov radium uas koj raug rau thiab lub sijhawm tsim nyog los tsim cov teebmeem no tsis paub," CDC ceeb toom. "Txawm hais tias muaj qee qhov tsis paub meej txog qhov raug radium ntau npaum li cas ua rau koj muaj feem cuam tshuam rau kev noj qab haus huv, qhov ntau dua tag nrho koj raug rau radium, qhov ntau dua koj yuav tsim ib qho ntawm cov kab mob no."

Muab qhov tsis paub meej txog ntau npaum li cas radium muaj teeb meem rau kev noj, qee tus tau sib cav tias cov kev cai tam sim no nruj dhau lawm. Tab sis lo lus nug ntawd yog txiav txim siab 12 xyoo dhau los nyob rau hauv ib lub teb chaws soj ntsuam foob nyob rau hauv uas Waukesha thiab Sussex sim foob los thaiv kev hloov tshiab rau radium txoj cai nyob rau hauv 2000. Cov zej zog tau them, thiab lwm yam, uas EPA siv flawed science los txiav txim qhov txaus ntshai ntawm radium. Tsoomfwv Meskas Lub Tsev Hais Plaub Txiav Txim Siab rau Cheeb Tsam ntawm Columbia tsis pom zoo, ua rau cov zej zog qhov kev sib tw.

Kevin Masarik, UW-Stevens Point tus kws tshaj lij kev kawm dej hauv av, tau lees paub cov qauv dej haus nruj nrog kev ua kom muaj kev pheej hmoo ntawm kev mob los ntawm radium qis.

"Kuv xav tias nws yuav zoo li tsis tshua muaj kev pheej hmoo ib nrab vim yog kev ua tiav ntawm cov qauv dej haus kom txo tau cov radium raug rau cov neeg coob ntawm cov khoom siv dej hauv nroog," nws hais.

Geology, twj tso kua mis khi rau radium

Ib qho xwm txheej tshwm sim, radium muaj nyob thoob plaws ib puag ncig. Overpumping ntawm sandstone aquifer qhov twg radium nyob yog qhov loj rau kev liam rau qib siab radium, cov kws tshaj lij hais.

"Dej txav los ntawm cov dej ntws qeeb dua li nws ua hauv lwm thaj chaw uas tseem muaj cov xuab zeb aquifers," raws li Timothy Grundl, UW-Milwaukee tus xibfwb ntawm geosciences. "Qhov no tuaj yeem ua rau muaj teeb meem loj dua vim tias cov dej muaj sijhawm ntau los khaws cov kab mob."

Madison's Well No. 27, nyob ze ntawm University of Wisconsin-Madison lub tsev kawm ntawv, muaj qee lub sij hawm tsim cov dej uas siab tshaj ntawm tsoom fwv qib siab tshaj plaws rau radium. Madison Water Utility tau txo lub qhov dej ua haujlwm mus rau 12 teev hauv ib lub lis piam thiab npaj yuav coj nws tawm ntawm kev pabcuam lub caij nplooj ntoo hlav no txhawm rau tshawb xyuas qhov chaw ntawm cov radium. Dee J. Hall / Wisconsin Center for Investigative Journalism

Kev loj hlob ntawm cov pej xeem thiab xav tau dej ntau ntxiv tau ua rau cov dej ntws los ua ib qho kev poob qis tshaj plaws hauv lub tebchaws, raws li Ezra Meyer, tus kws tshaj lij dej hauv Madison-based ib puag ncig pab pawg, Clean Wisconsin.

Txawm hais tias cov dej hauv av tau rov zoo dua qee qhov hauv kaum xyoo dhau los, cov zej zog yuav tsum tau xyaum cov qhov tob tob kom coj mus rau hauv cov dej ntws uas cov kws tshawb fawb hais tias tau nqis los ze li 500 ko taw txij li xyoo 1800s. Nyob rau hauv tus txheej txheem, cov zej zog khiav mus rau hauv ntau radium vim hais tias kev sib kis yuav ua rau kom qhov tob ntawm lub qhov dej yog drilled, hais tias Steve Elmore, lub xeev DNR tus pej xeem cov dej num tus thawj coj.

Overpumping ntawm lub aquifer kuj tuaj yeem hloov pauv cov dej ntws.

"Cov dej uas siv los ntws mus rau Lake Michigan tam sim no ntws mus rau sab hnub poob," said US Geological Survey hydrologist Daniel Feinstein. "Ib feem ntawm vim li cas peb tau pom cov qib siab ntawm radium yog tias qhov chaw ntws tau muaj zog los ntawm kev siv dej ntau dhau."

Ntawm ntau dua 40 lub zej zog hauv Wisconsin uas muaj qhov dej ntau dhau ntawm tsoomfwv txwv, txhua tus tab sis Waukesha muaj peev xwm ua raws lossis xav tau, raws li Todd Ambs, tus thawj coj ntawm Kho Peb Cov Dej Dej-Great Lakes Coalition, uas suav nrog ntau dua 100. ib puag ncig thiab lwm pab pawg mob siab rau kev kho mob ntawm Great Lakes. Tab sis Waukesha tau hais tias nws yuav tsis ua raws li nws lub tsev hais plaub tau txiav txim rau 2018 hnub kawg ua raws.

Cov nqi ntawm radium

Muaj ntau txoj hauv kev uas cov qib radium tuaj yeem coj mus rau hauv kev ua raws, ntawm cov nqi sib txawv. Lub nroog tuaj yeem siv cov txheej txheem kim xws li kev kho dej los yog diluting dej los ntawm qhov dej tob nrog dej los ntawm cov dej ntiav; Waukesha siv ob lub tswv yim. Cov tswv tsev nrog lub qhov dej ntiag tug kuj tuaj yeem siv cov tshuaj ntxuav dej kom tshem tawm cov radium.

Milwaukee Tus Thawj Kav Tebchaws Tom Barrett hais lus ntawm lub rooj sib hais rau pej xeem hauv Waukesha thaum Lub Ob Hlis txog Waukesha qhov kev thov kom siv dej Lake Michigan los hloov cov dej hauv av uas muaj radium. Cov thawj coj ntawm yim lub xeev Great Lakes yuav tsum pom zoo rau qhov kev pom zoo tsis sib haum xeeb. Barrett tau hais tias Milwaukee yuav txiav txim siab muag dej rau Waukesha tab sis tsuas yog tias nws txwv nws thaj chaw pabcuam dej rau Waukesha lub nroog txwv.
Matt Campbell / Wisconsin Center for Investigative Journalism

Lub nroog Brookfield tau kho ib qho ntawm 22 lub qhov dej txij li xyoo 2006 rau kev kis kab mob radium, hais tias Thomas Grisa, tus thawj coj pej xeem ua haujlwm rau lub nroog. Brookfield tau ua ntu zus mus rau qib radium uas nyob ntawm 6 mus rau 8 pCi / L, piv rau tsoomfwv txwv ntawm 5 pCi / L, tab sis "koom nrog tam sim ntawd," Grisa hais.

Brookfield siv nyiaj txog $111,000 ib xyoos rau kev kho radium thiab kuaj. Radium suav rau 2.7 feem pua ​​​​ntawm cov neeg siv khoom cov nqi dej, lossis kwv yees li $ 8 ib xyoos, nws hais.

Grisa tsis ntseeg tias ntau tus neeg nyob hauv Brookfield tau haus cov dej uas muaj radium vim tias nws tau kho tau zoo los ntawm kev ua kom dej muag.

"Nws yog txoj cai thiab peb yuav tsum ua raws li," Grisa hais. "Tab sis peb zoo li tau coj lub tswv yim hauv Asmeskas tias tsis muaj dab tsi tuaj yeem nyob hauv peb cov dej haus, thaum tej zaum cov nyiaj ntawd tuaj yeem siv tau zoo dua."

Waukesha tam sim no suav nrog kev hloov pauv ntawm Lake Michigan dej, hais tias nws yog tsuas yog tsim nyog lwm txoj kev los muab cov dej haus nyab xeeb rau nws cov neeg nyob.

Nyob ntawm seb muaj nyiaj npaum li cas tsoomfwv tau ncaws tawm, cov nqi dej nruab nrab yuav nce ntawm $ 27 ib hlis mus rau nruab nrab ntawm $ 50 thiab $ 90 ib hlis, hais tias Daniel Duchniak, tus thawj coj ntawm Waukesha Water Utility. Txawm hais tias Waukesha tau txais tsoomfwv cov peev nyiaj txog li 25 feem pua ​​​​ntawm tus nqi, nws tau hais tias, "Peb cia siab tias cov nqi dej yuav tsawg kawg ob npaug thiab muaj peev xwm ua peb npaug."

Waukesha cov tub ceev xwm hais tias lwm txoj hauv kev thawb los ntawm cov neeg tawm tsam, xws li nce kev txuag dej, tsis txaus. Thiab kev nqus dej ntau dua los ntawm qhov dej ntiav kom tsis txhob muaj hluav taws xob, Duchniak tau hais tias, yuav ua rau "kev cuam tshuam ib puag ncig tsis zoo" rau thaj chaw ntub dej thiab cov kwj deg.

Mary Kate McCoy kawm tiav hauv University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Journalism thiab Mass Communication nyob rau lub Tsib Hlis 2015. Tam sim no nws ua haujlwm ntawm Wisconsin Public Radio. Cov neeg sau xov xwm Silke Schmidt thiab Dee J. Hall tau pab txhawb rau tsab ntawv ceeb toom no. Zaj dab neeg tau tsim los ua ib feem ntawm cov chav kawm sau xov xwm koom nrog hauv The Confluence, ib txoj haujlwm sib koom tes nrog Wisconsin Center for Investigative Journalism thiab UW-Madison Tsev Kawm Ntawv ntawm Kev Sau Xov Xwm thiab Kev Sib Txuas Lus. Lub koom haum nonprofit (www.WisconsinWatch.org) koom tes nrog Wisconsin Cov Xov Xwm Zej Tsoom, Wisconsin Cov Xov Xwm Rau Pej Xeem, lwm cov xov xwm tshaj tawm thiab UW-Madison Tsev Kawm Ntawv Xov Xwm thiab Kev Sib Txuas Lus. Txhua yam haujlwm tsim, tshaj tawm, tshaj tawm lossis tshaj tawm los ntawm Lub Chaw tsis tas yuav cuam tshuam cov kev xav lossis kev xav ntawm UW-Madison lossis ib qho ntawm cov koom tes.

Rov luam tawm peb cov ntawv dawb, hauv online lossis luam tawm, raws li daim ntawv tso cai Creative Commons.

Nrov dab neeg los ntawm Wisconsin Watch

Ib lo lus teb rau "Raws li qhov dej nkag mus tob dua, cov qib radium nce hauv lub xeev cov kais dej"

Lus raug kaw.