Crystal Wozniak, left, shows Green Bay homeowner Jackie Grant how to test her home for lead hazards. After she learned her own son was lead poisoned in 2013, Wozniak made it her mission to spread awareness about the presences of lead in households. "Most moms or families do want to protect their kids and there's just so many people that don't know about this hidden hazard and how badly it affects young children," she said.

Lead in drinking water poses danger for children, pregnant women

Nearly 4,000 children in Wisconsin were diagnosed with elevated levels of lead in their blood in 2014, though the number has fallen over the years thanks in part to bans on lead in paint and gasoline. Unlike in Flint, Michigan, however, no one knows how much lead in the drinking water contributes to elevated blood lead levels in Wisconsin. There are no requirements to test the drinking water when a child is lead poisoned.

Reducing the risk of lead poisoning from drinking water

According to water quality experts, there are several steps consumers can take to reduce exposure to lead in drinking water. These actions are particularly important for pregnant women, formula-fed infants and children under the age of 6. Use only cold water for cooking and drinking. Water from the hot water tap can dissolve lead more easily than cold water. Boiling water can concentrate lead.

Mary Jane Koch stands near the site of her family’s former summer cottage on Lake Wisconsin. For decades, the Badger Army Ammunition Plant dumped its waste into the lake, an impoundment of the Wisconsin River. The Army has since removed tons of heavy metals from the lake and has proposed building a public water system to provide clean drinking water to area residents.

Costs, water pollution remain at closed Badger Army Ammunition Plant

Decades of toxic waste disposal at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant — including pouring millions of gallons a day of polluted water into Lake Wisconsin — have contaminated some nearby residents’ drinking water and raised concerns about the long-term effects on their health. But help may be on the way.

Nitrogen-based fertilizers applied to corn and other crops in Wisconsin is partially to blame for unsafe levels of nitrate found in wells around the state, researchers say.

What is nitrate?

Nitrate is a compound naturally found in plants and in vegetables and can be found in groundwater, depending on how much fertilizer and manure is applied to fields.

Sauk County farmer Jim Goodman, seen here at the farmers’ market in the village of Dane, said he believes Wisconsin’s nitrate problem has been exacerbated by “too many animals in too small a space” and the government’s failure to enforce pollution laws. Goodman is an organic farmer who uses nitrogen-fixing cover crops and manure rather than artificial fertilizers.

Going organic: One farmer’s fight against contaminants in the groundwater

In the early 1990s, Jim Goodman and his wife began to worry about how the chemicals they were using on the farm might affect their children. The fourth-generation Wisconsin farmer decided to make the shift away from conventional farming at his Sauk County operation. Now certified organic, the farm includes 120 head of cattle on pasture, including 45 milk cows, and 300 acres of crops.

Land use is a factor boosting the level of nitrate in the water in Wisconsin. In the Upper Midwest, millions of acres of grassland — which leaches little nitrogen into aquifers — have been converted into fields of corn, soy and other crops since 2008, according to University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers. Here, a farmer harvests corn near Blair in Trempealeau County.

Nitrate in water widespread, current rules no match for it

Levels of nitrate, one of the Wisconsin’s top drinking water contaminants, are increasing. Nitrate comes primarily from fertilizers, including manure, and puts infants and expectant mothers particularly at risk. A projected 94,000 households are drinking private well water with unsafe levels of nitrate. And many of them don’t even know it since few private well owners conduct regular testing.